About Women and Social Movements, International, by co-editors Kathryn Kish Sklar and Thomas Dublin.
1. About the Database
Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present is the collaborative product of five years of work by hundreds of historians, librarians, archivists, and IT professionals.
This digital archive (complete as of June 2015) includes 150,000 pages of conference proceedings, reports of international women's organizations, publications and web pages of women's non-governmental organizations, and letters, diaries, and memoirs of women active internationally since the mid-nineteenth century.
It also includes photographs and videos of major events and activists in the history of women’s international social movements. Finally, we have commissioned from leading contemporary scholars 25-30 essays exploring themes illuminated by the primary documents in the archive. Most of the essays were posted on the website in October 2012. A few additional essays may appear during 2014.
The vision for the project arose from our work as editors of Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000. After a decade of rewarding effort with that online journal in 2007, we wanted to aid the international turn in historical studies. We became intrigued with the idea of creating an online archive of primary sources generated by women's international activism, 1840 to the present. We decided to move ahead and try to serve the needs of scholars as well as students—to collect in depth as well as breadth.
We began by identifying leading women's organizations and events through which women's international activism was channeled. The support of an international advisory board convened at the June 2008 Berkshire Conference on Women's History at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis was crucial in defining the scope of the project and selecting appropriate organizations, topics, events and persons. Using the online catalogs of WorldCat and Reader's Guide Retrospective, we found materials that fit our selection criteria. Then we began to consult leading international archives in women's history to choose likely manuscript materials and rare published works for inclusion. To keep track of our bibliographies, we relied on Zotero software created by the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University.
Ultimately we secured about 20 percent of the archive materials through books and serials from our university's library at the State University of New York, Binghamton. Another 55 percent of sources came from libraries around the world through interlibrary loan requests. Librarians at Binghamton helped us launch the project and remained consistently supportive during three years of hyper-active library work. About 25 percent of the archive came from manuscripts and rare books in various archives, or directly from organizations and NGO websites. Our publisher, Alexander Street Press, helped us acquire these extensive materials from archives in the United States and internationally. Throughout this process ASP staff maintained the high scholarly standards for which the press is well known. As the work proceeded we needed to reach beyond the normal ILL channels and made numerous phone calls directly to librarians at lending institutions to confirm their holdings and arrange for interlibrary loans. On several occasions, this coordination revealed rare proceedings that were not listed in online catalogs. Some institutions provided rare works outside the formal interlibrary loan process. Others made arrangements to scan or photocopy works that could not be loaned. The archive was considerably enhanced by their generous assistance.
Because we collected extensively from the decades after 1950, the vast majority of materials in the archive are protected by copyright. Much of our work assembling the archive was devoted to securing the permissions of copyright holders to reprint the materials. Women's organizations were the principal copyright holders we contacted. More than half the published material in the archive was published outside the United States. Through email, correspondence, and phone calls to locations around the world, we contacted staff and officers of women's organizations as well as authors, heirs of authors, and publishers. We are especially grateful for the generosity of those now directing women's international organizations for their permission to reprint compelling documents that will permit scholars and students to explore the past century and a half of women's international activism. The following list is of organizations and individuals who granted us permissions.
The Aletta Institute for Women's History, Amsterdam
Africa-America Institute, New York, N.Y.
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
American Association of University Women, Washington, D.C.
American Baptist Historical Society
American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
Amnesty International, London
Amnesty International USA, New York, N.Y.
Peggy Antrobus, Barbados
Arab Women's Solidarity Association, Cairo
Archive Center for Women's History, Brussels
Georgina T. Ashworth, Melbourne, United Kingdom
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
American Association of University Women, Washington, D.C.
Asian Women's Human Rights Council, Bangalore, India
Associated Country Women of the World, London
Association for Women's Rights in Development, Capetown, South Africa
Australian History Museum, Macquarie University, New South Wales
Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University, Jerusalem
Professor Barbara Bailey, University of the West Indies
Tatiana Bernardino Bido, West Palm Bach, Fla.
Bloch Publishing, Jacksonville, Fla.
Professor Mineke Bosch, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Boston Public Library, Boston, Mass.
BPW International, Oak Beach, N.Y.
Special Collections, Bryn Mawr College Library, Bryn Mawr, Penn.
Charlotte Bunch, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.
Catholics for Choice, Washington, D.C.
Center for the Global South, American University, Washington, D.C.
Center for Women's Global Leadership, New Brunswick, N.J.
Chapin Library, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.
Charles L. Blockson Afro-American Collection, Temple University, Philadelphia, Penn.
Salome Chasnoff, Chicago, Ill.
Chicago History Museum, Chicago, Ill.
Sister Joan Chittister, Erie, Penn.
Christian Science Publishing Society, Boston, Mass.
Commonweal Magazine, New York, N.Y.
Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y.
Lady Deirdre Curteis, North Yorkshire, United Kingdom
Danish Women's Society, Copenhagen
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era, Quezon City, Philippines
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, Chile
El Taller International, Tunis,Tunisia
Equality Now, New York, N.Y.
Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids, Mich.
Nawal El Saadawi, Cairo
European Women's Lobby, Brussels
Harriet Feinberg, Cambridge, Mass.
The Feminist Press, New York, N.Y.
Foreign Policy Association, New York, N.Y.
Forum for African Women Educationalists, Nairobi, Kenya
Frances Perkins Center, Newcastle, Me.
Professor Harriet P. Freidenreich, Temple University, Philadelphia, Penn.
Women's Division, General Board of Global Ministries, United Methodist Church, New York, N.Y.
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, Bangkok, Thailand
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, Canada, Burnaby, B.C., Canada
Global Fund for Women, San Francisco, Calif.
The heirs of Pearl S. Buck
Hollins University Archives, Roanoke, Va.
Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Stanford, CA
Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Ind.
International Alliance of Women, Geneva
International Center for Research on Women, Washington, D.C.
International Council of Jewish Women, Zur Hadassah, Israel
International Council of Women/Conseil International des Femmes, Lausanne, Switzerland
International Federation of University Women, Geneva
International Human Rights Law Institute, Depaul University, Chicago, Ill.
International Institute for Social History, Amsterdam
International Labour Organization, Geneva
International Labour Review
International League for Human Rights, New York, N.Y.
International Organization for Migration, Geneva
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London
International Trade Union Council, Brussels
International Women's Rights Action Watch Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
International Women's Rights Action Watch, Minneapolis, Minn.
International Women's Tribune Centre, New York, N.Y.
International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Copenhagen
Devaki Jain, New Delhi, India
Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md.
Josephine Butler Society, Canterbury, United Kingdom
Journal of Home Economics
Kumarian Press, Sterling, Va.
Nella Las, Jerusalem
Lady Deirdre Curteis
Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network, Santiago, Chile
Professor Elsa Leo-Rhynie, University of the West Indies
Leyden Lane, Chatham, MA
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Penn.
MADRE, New York, N.,Y.
Marijke Peters, Amsterdam
Mary McLeod Buthune Council House NHS
Massachusetts Review, Amherst, Mass.
Medical Women's International Association, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
Middle East Institute, Washington, D.C.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Copenhagen
The Nation, New York, N.Y.
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., New York
National Council of Jewish Women, New York, N.Y.
National Council of Women, New York, N.Y.
National Council of Catholic Women, Arlington, Va.
National League of Women Voters, Washington, D.C.
National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh
National Society for Human Rights, Namibia
Historic National Woman's Party, Washington, D.C.
The Network of East-West Women, Gdansk, Poland
Oberlin College Archives, Oberlin, Ohio
Office for Women, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Canberra, Australia
Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio
Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio
Orbis Books, Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers, Maryknoll, N.Y.
Organization of American States, Washington D.C.
Pan-Pacific and South East Asia Women's Association, Independent Samoa
Philippine Commission on Women, Manila
Professor Judy Polumbaum, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
Population Council, New York, N.Y.
Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, N.Y.
Reformed Church in America, Grand Rapids, Mich.
Diana E. H. Russell, Berkeley, Calif.
Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Socialist International Women, London
Solidarity Center, AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C.
Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
St. Joan's Alliance, Brussels
Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, Ia.
Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore, Penn.
The Christian Century, Chicago, IL
The Streetfeet Women
Professor Meredeth Turshen, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.
UCLA African Studies Center, Los Angeles, Calif.
United Nations, New York, N.Y.
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service, Geneva
University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill.
University of Illinois Press, Champaign, Ill.
Nicole Van de Ven, Sint Pieters-Woluwe, Belgium
War on Want, London
Tamiment Library, New York, NY
The Way, Oxford, United Kingdom
Thomas G. Weiss, CUNY Graduate Center, New York, N.Y.
Univ. of Delaware Archives and Records Management
Univ. of Delaware Press
WFP Library, World Food Programme, Rome
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, N.Y.
Women on Waves, Amsterdam
Woman's Board of Missions, Cleveland, OH
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Evanston, Ill.
Women's Board of Foreign Missions, Grand Rapids, MI
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Geneva
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Minnesota Metro Branch
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, U.S. Section
Women's International Zionist Organization, Tel Aviv, Israel
World Council of Churches, Geneva
World Health Organization, Geneva
World YWCA, Geneva
Annie Wright, Amsterdam
Zed Books, London
With a combination of funding from Alexander Street Press and SUNY Binghamton, we assembled a talented staff of graduate students—Denise Ireton, Jessie Frazier, Carol Linskey, Jennifer Tomas, and Kelly Marino—all of whom are writing dissertations on topics related to women's social movements. They populated the fields of the Zotero database, generated Excel spreadsheets, selected and acquired documents to be considered for inclusion, improved the database's indexing, and supervised the work flow of undergraduate students who scanned documents. (Click here for a full list of graduate and undergraduate students who helped create the archive.)
Throughout our work we benefited greatly from the recommendations of members of our scholarly Advisory Board. By August 2010 the board had grown to more than 130 members, drawn from 30 countries. That month we met with board members at a conference of the International Federation for Research in Women's History at the Aletta Institute in Amsterdam. In October 2010 we posted a penultimate version of the archive online in the form of about fifty bibliographies of items arranged by organizations, events and global regions. Reviews by Advisory Board members of the bibliographies helped us fill in gaps and eliminate redundancies as we selected final items for the archive. (Click here for Advisory Board members.)
We published the first release of the archive in January 2011 and with the release of June 2015 we published the last few documents and enhanced the indexing and functionality of the archive and database.
2. How to Cite Sources from WASI International
Because WASI is accessible through the servers of subscribing libraries, the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) will vary, depending on the library, and the URL citation will also vary depending on the library.
We therefore recommend that users include the following elements in their citations:
We added a final release in September 2014 and expect in March 2014 to enhance the indexing and functionality of the archive and database as well as post a few remaining items on the site.
3. WASM International Advisory Board
Advisory Board members come from 30 countries.
|Alexandrova, Nadelja||University of Sofia, Bulgaria||Bulgaria|
|Allen, Ann Taylor||University of Louisville||USA|
|Allen, Margaret||University of Adelaide||Australia|
|Antler, Joyce||Brandeis University||USA|
|Bader-Zaar, Brigitta||University of Vienna||Austria|
|Badran, Margot||Northwestern University||USA|
|Bandhauer-Schoeffmann, Irene||University of Vienna||Austria|
|Barnes, Sherri||UC, Santa Barbara||USA|
|Bloch, Avital||University of Colima||Mexico|
|Blom, Ida||University of Bergen||Norway|
|Bonfiglioli, Chiara||Utrecht University||Netherlands|
|Boris, Eileen||UC, Santa Barbara||USA|
|Bosch, Mineke||Groningen University||Netherlands|
|Boxer, Marilyn J.||San Francisco State University||USA|
|Brookes, Barbara||University of Otago||New Zealand|
|Butterfield, Jo||University of Iowa||USA|
|Caine, Barbara||Monash University||Australia|
|Camiscioli, Elisa||SUNY, Binghamton||USA|
|Campbell, Lara||Simon Fraser University||Canada|
|Carlier, Julie||Ghent University||Belgium|
|Chung, Hyun-Back||Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul||South Korea|
|Cîrstocea, Ioana||CNRS, National Center for Scientific Research, Strasbourg||France|
|Clowes, Lindsay||University of Western Cape||South Africa|
|Cobble, Dorothy Sue||Rutgers University||USA|
|Cott, Nancy||Harvard University||USA|
|Cova, Anne||University of Lisbon||Portugal|
|Cowling, Camillia||Cândido Mendes University, Rio de Janeiro||Brazil|
|Dalakoura, Katerina||University of Crete||Greece|
|Daskalova, Krassimira||University of Sofia||Bulgaria|
|de Haan, Francisca||Central European University, Budapest||Hungary|
|Dojcinovic, Biljana||University of Belgrade||Serbia|
|Doress-Worters, Paula||Brandeis University||USA|
|Duncan, Jennifer S.||Bridgewater College||USA|
|Eichner, Carolyn||University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee||USA|
|Elgan, Elisabeth||Sodertorn University College||Sweden|
|Enloe, Cynthia||Clark University||USA|
|Falierou, Anastassia||School for Advanced Studies, Paris||France|
|Faulkner, Carol||Syracuse University||USA|
|Florin, Christina||Stockholm University||Sweden|
|Fonow, Mary||Arizona State University||USA|
|Formaglio, Cécile||University of Angers||France|
|Fournaraki, Eleni||University of Crete||Greece|
|Fraser, Arvonne||Minneapolis, Minn.||USA|
|Frost, Jennifer||Auckland University||New Zealand|
|Garner, Karen||Empire State College||USA|
|Gaucher, Julie||University of Lyons||France|
|Gilmore, Stephanie||Dickinson College||USA|
|Gold, Carol||Unversity of Alaska||USA|
|Goodman, Joyce||University of Winchester||UK|
|Gouda, Frances||Amsterdam University||Netherlands|
|Grimshaw, Patricia||University of Melbourne||Australia|
|Gwinn, Kristen||Independent Scholar||USA|
|Haggis, Jane||Flinders University||Australia|
|Henold, Mary||University of Roanoke||USA|
|Hervé, Florence||Independent Researcher, Düsseldorf||Germany|
|Hunter, Jane||Lewis and Clark University||USA|
|Iacovetta, Franca||University of Toronto||Canada|
|Ishii, Noriko||Otsuma Women's University||Japan|
|Janke, Linda||Community College||USA|
|Karakaya-Stump, Ayfer||Cornell University & Harvard University||USA|
|Kohiyama, Rui||Tokyo Women's Christian University||Japan|
|Kolly, Berengere||University of Paris||France|
|Kolmerten, Carol||Hood College||USA|
|Kuhlman, Erika||Idaho State University||USA|
|Lake, Marilyn||LaTrobe University||Australia|
|Laughlin, Kathleen||Metropolitan State University||USA|
|Laut, Julie||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign||USA|
|Leslie, Grace||Yale University||USA|
|Limoncelli, Stephanie||Loyola Marymount University||USA|
|López, Carolina Rodríguez||Complutense University of Madrid||Spain|
|Maffi, Irene||University of Lausanne||Switzerland|
|Malleier, Elisabeth||University of Vienna||Austria|
|McAlister, Melanie||George Washington University||USA|
|McCune, Mary||SUNY, Oswego||USA|
|McFadden, Margaret||Appalachian State University||USA|
|Mevis, Annette||Aletta Institute, Amsterdam||Netherlands|
|Midgley, Clare||Sheffield Hallam University||UK|
|Mishra, Yuthika||Vivekananda College, Delhi||India|
|Moses, Claire||University of Maryland||USA|
|Natchkova, Nora||University of Lausanne||Switzerland|
|Navarro, Marysa||Dartmouth College||USA|
|Nazarska, Georgeta||State University of Library Studies, Sofia||Bulgaria|
|Naznin, Mir Zahida||Jahangirnagar University||Bangladesh|
|Neunsinger, Silke||Labour Movement Archives and Library, Stockholm||Sweden|
|Nijhawan, Shobna||York University, Toronto||Canada|
|Novikova, Natalia||Yaroslavl State Pedagogical University||Russia|
|Oertzen, Christine von||Max Planck Institute, Berlin||Germany|
|Offen, Karen||Stanford University||USA|
|Olcott, Jocelyn H.||Duke University||USA|
|Paisley, Fiona||Griffith University, Brisbane||Australia|
|Partington, John S.||Freelance historian||UK|
|Patterson, Tiffany||Vanderbilt University||USA|
|Perry, Elisabeth||St. Louis University||USA|
|Petit, Jeanne||Hope College||USA|
|Possing, Birgitte||Danish National Archives||Denmark|
|Prieto, Laura R.||Simmons College, Boston||USA|
|Purvis, June||University of Portsmouth||UK|
|Pushkareva, Natalia||Russian Academy of Sciences||Russia|
|Quataert, Jean||SUNY, Binghamton||USA|
|Rapp, Anne||DePaul University||USA|
|Redmon, Sherrill||Sophia Smith Collection||USA|
|Reeves-Ellington, Barbara||Siena College||USA|
|Renda, Mary||Mount Holyoke College||USA|
|Ribberink, Anneke||Free University, Amsterdam||Netherlands|
|Roces, Mina||University of New South Wales, Sydney||Australia|
|Rogers, Rebecca||Paris Decartes University||France|
|Rosen, Ruth||UC, Berkeley||USA|
|Rosenberg, Emily||UC, Irvine||USA|
|Roth, Benita||SUNY, Binghamton||USA|
|Rupp, Leila||UC, Santa Barbara||USA|
|Ruthchild, Rochelle Goldberg||Harvard University||USA|
|Sangster, Joan||Trent University||Canada|
|Sarkar, Tanika||Jawaharlal Nejru University||India|
|Schuler, Anja||University of Hedelberg||Germany|
|Schwalm, Leslie A.||University of Iowa||USA|
|Shemo, Connie||SUNY, Plattsburgh||USA|
|Sluga, Glenda||University of Sydney||Australia|
|Spruill, Marjorie||University of South Carolina||USA|
|Swain, Shurlee||Australian Catholic University||Australia|
|Takahashi, Yuko||Tsuda University||Japan|
|Threlkeld, Megan||Denison University, Granville||USA|
|Torres San Martin, Patricia||University of Guadalajara||Mexico|
|van der Spuy, Patricia||Castleton State College, Vermont||USA|
|van, Dijk, Suzan||Huygens Instituut KNAW, the Hague||Netherlands|
|Vezzosi, Elisabeth||University of Trieste||Italy|
|Waaldijk, Berteke||Utrecht University||Netherlands|
|Wamsley, Sue||Kent State University||USA|
|Wernitznig, Dagmar||University of Oxford||UK|
|Wheeler, Leigh Ann||SUNY, Binghamton||USA|
|Wieringa, Saskia||Amsterdam University||Netherlands|
|Wikander, Ulla||Stockhold University||Sweden|
|Wils, Kaat||Catholic University Leuven||Belgium|
|Wilson, Ann Marie||Harvard University||USA|
|Woollacott, Angela||Australian National University||Australia|
|Yamaguchi, Kiyoko||Chinese University of Hong Kong||China|
|Yasutake, Rumi||Konan University||Japan|
|Zimmermann, Susan||Central European University, Budapest||Hungary|
|Zinsser, Judith P.||Miami University, Ohio||USA|
4. Scholarly Reviews of the Database
For a review of Women and Social Movements International in History Workshop Online, click here. Our second review came in the Journal of American History. Click here Christy Snider also reviewed the website in Peace & Change 39:4 (October 2014), 564-66. Click here.
5. Project Staff
Kathryn Kish Sklar, co-editor of the web site, is Distinguished Professor of History Emerita and Co-Director of the Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender at the State University of New York at Binghamton. In 2005-2006 she was the Harmsworth Professor of American History at the University of Oxford. She is the author of Florence Kelley and the Nation's Work: The Rise of Women's Political Culture, 1830-1900 (1995), and other books and articles on women and social movements. Her first book, Catharine Beecher: A Study in American Domesticity (1973), analyzed how women reshaped gender identities and gender relationships in the antebellum era. Both her books on Catharine Beecher and Florence Kelley were awarded the Berkshire Conference Prize. She is currently completing a study of women and social movements in the Progressive era, 1900-1930.
Thomas Dublin is co-editor of the web site. He serves as Bartle Distinguished Professor of History and Co-Director of the Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender at the State University of New York at Binghamton. He is the author or editor of eight books including Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826-1860 (1979), winner of the Bancroft Prize and the Merle Curti Award. His latest book, The Face of Decline: The Pennsylvania Anthracite Region in the Twentieth Century, co-authored with Walter Licht, received the 2006 Merle Curti Award for Social History and the Philip S. Klein Prize.
Denise Ireton served as the Managing Editor of the digital archive, "Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present." She is an advanced doctoral student at SUNY Binghamton who is working on her dissertation, "'Responsible to the Peoples of the World': Activist Women, International Organizing, and Peace Efforts, 1920-1945."
Jessie Frazier served as Project Coordinator on the digital archive, "Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present." She completed her Ph.D. at SUNY Binghamton, with a dissertation entitled, "Making Connections in Viet Nam: Transnational U.S. Women Activists and the Meanings of Race, Gender, and Revolution, 1965-1975.”
Carol Linskey served as Project Coordinator on the digital archive, "Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present." She earned her Ph.D. in U.S. Women's History at SUNY Binghamton in 2013 for a dissertation entitled, "Invisible Politics: Dorothy Kenyon and Women’s Internationalism, 1930s-1950."
Jennifer Tomas served in 2011-2012 as a graduate assistant for the Women and Social Movements web sites. In Spring 2012 she completed her dissertation at SUNY Binghamton entitled, "The Women’s History Movement in the United States: Professional and Political Roots of the Field, 1922 to 1987." She is an Assistant Professor of History at Piedmont Virginia Community College.
Kelly Marino served in 2012-2013 as a graduate assistant for the Women and Social Movements web sites. She is completing a dissertation at SUNY Binghamton entitled, "Creating a Revolution in Educated Opinion: College Students and Woman Suffrage Organizing, 1890-1920."
6. Editorial Policies
Coming in March 2014.
7. About the Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender
Click here for the web site of the Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender at SUNY Binghamton, where the editorial work for this digital archive was carried out.
Please report any errata to the editor at the address at the bottom of this document. There are no known errata at this time.
9. Technical Support
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10. Subscription and Free Trial Information
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All materials in Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present are protected under U.S. and International Copyright Law. Fair use under the law permits reproduction of single copies for personal research and private use. Further transmission, reproduction, or presentation of protected items requires the written permission of the copyright owners.
These digitized collections are accessible for education and research. The editors have identified and contacted copyright holders and have secured permissions to reprint items in the archive from more than two hundred publishers, archives, libraries, organizations, and individuals. On rare occasions we were not able to identify and contact appropriate persons and we are eager to hear from those rights owners. Upon request, we'll remove material from public view while we address a rights issue.
Texts produced for Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present are considered research materials and receive the same level of stewardship as books, paper documents, and photographs. Copies of the database are given to all purchasing institutions, thereby ensuring that the materials are available to subsequent generations.