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About Women and Social Movements, International, by co-editors Kathryn Kish Sklar and Thomas Dublin.

1. About the Database

Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present is the collaborative product of five years of work by hundreds of historians, librarians, archivists, and IT professionals.

This digital archive currently includes 150,000 pages of conference proceedings, reports of international women's organizations, publications and web pages of women's non-governmental organizations, and letters, diaries, and memoirs of women active internationally since the mid-nineteenth century. In the six months ahead we will add a very few new documents and improve the indexing and functionality of the site. We completed adding documents to the database in September 2013.

It also includes photographs and videos of major events and activists in the history of women’s international social movements. Finally, we have commissioned from leading contemporary scholars 25-30 essays exploring themes illuminated by the primary documents in the archive. Most of the essays were posted on the website in October 2012. A few additional essays may appear during 2014.

The vision for the project arose from our work as editors of Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000. After a decade of rewarding effort with that online journal in 2007, we wanted to aid the international turn in historical studies. We became intrigued with the idea of creating an online archive of primary sources generated by women's international activism, 1840 to the present. We decided to move ahead and try to serve the needs of scholars as well as students—to collect in depth as well as breadth.

We began by identifying leading women's organizations and events through which women's international activism was channeled. The support of an international advisory board convened at the June 2008 Berkshire Conference on Women's History at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis was crucial in defining the scope of the project and selecting appropriate organizations, topics, events and persons. Using the online catalogs of WorldCat and Reader's Guide Retrospective, we found materials that fit our selection criteria. Then we began to consult leading international archives in women's history to choose likely manuscript materials and rare published works for inclusion. To keep track of our bibliographies, we relied on Zotero software created by the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University.

Ultimately we secured about 20 percent of the archive materials through books and serials from our university's library at the State University of New York, Binghamton. Another 55 percent of sources came from libraries around the world through interlibrary loan requests. Librarians at Binghamton helped us launch the project and remained consistently supportive during three years of hyper-active library work. About 25 percent of the archive came from manuscripts and rare books in various archives, or directly from organizations and NGO websites. Our publisher, Alexander Street Press, helped us acquire these extensive materials from archives in the United States and internationally. Throughout this process ASP staff maintained the high scholarly standards for which the press is well known. As the work proceeded we needed to reach beyond the normal ILL channels and made numerous phone calls directly to librarians at lending institutions to confirm their holdings and arrange for interlibrary loans. On several occasions, this coordination revealed rare proceedings that were not listed in online catalogs. Some institutions provided rare works outside the formal interlibrary loan process. Others made arrangements to scan or photocopy works that could not be loaned. The archive was considerably enhanced by their generous assistance.

Because we collected extensively from the decades after 1950, the vast majority of materials in the archive are protected by copyright. Much of our work assembling the archive was devoted to securing the permissions of copyright holders to reprint the materials. Women's organizations were the principal copyright holders we contacted. More than half the published material in the archive was published outside the United States. Through email, correspondence, and phone calls to locations around the world, we contacted staff and officers of women's organizations as well as authors, heirs of authors, and publishers. We are especially grateful for the generosity of those now directing women's international organizations for their permission to reprint compelling documents that will permit scholars and students to explore the past century and a half of women's international activism. The following list is of organizations and individuals who granted us permissions.

    The Aletta Institute for Women's History, Amsterdam
    Africa-America Institute, New York, N.Y.
    Alexander Sanger
    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
    American Association of University Women, Washington, D.C.
    American Baptist Historical Society
    American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
    Amnesty International, London
    Amnesty International USA, New York, N.Y.
    Peggy Antrobus, Barbados
    Arab Women's Solidarity Association, Cairo
    Archive Center for Women's History, Brussels
    Georgina T. Ashworth, Melbourne, United Kingdom
    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
    American Association of University Women, Washington, D.C.
    Asian Women's Human Rights Council, Bangalore, India
    Associated Country Women of the World, London
    Association for Women's Rights in Development, Capetown, South Africa
    Australian History Museum, Macquarie University, New South Wales
    Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University, Jerusalem
    Professor Barbara Bailey, University of the West Indies
    Tatiana Bernardino Bido, West Palm Bach, Fla.
    Bloch Publishing, Jacksonville, Fla.
    Professor Mineke Bosch, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Boston Public Library, Boston, Mass.
    BPW International, Oak Beach, N.Y.
    Special Collections, Bryn Mawr College Library, Bryn Mawr, Penn.
    Charlotte Bunch, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.
    Catholics for Choice, Washington, D.C.
    Center for the Global South, American University, Washington, D.C.
    Center for Women's Global Leadership, New Brunswick, N.J.
    Chapin Library, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.
    Charles L. Blockson Afro-American Collection, Temple University, Philadelphia, Penn.
    Salome Chasnoff, Chicago, Ill.
    Chicago History Museum, Chicago, Ill.
    Sister Joan Chittister, Erie, Penn.
    Christian Science Publishing Society, Boston, Mass.
    Commonweal Magazine, New York, N.Y.
    Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y.
    Dorothy Crawford
    Lady Deirdre Curteis, North Yorkshire, United Kingdom
    Danish Women's Society, Copenhagen
    Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era, Quezon City, Philippines
    Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, Chile
    El Taller International, Tunis,Tunisia
    Equality Now, New York, N.Y.
    Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids, Mich.
    Nawal El Saadawi, Cairo
    European Women's Lobby, Brussels
    Harriet Feinberg, Cambridge, Mass.
    The Feminist Press, New York, N.Y.
    Foreign Policy Association, New York, N.Y.
    Forum for African Women Educationalists, Nairobi, Kenya
    Frances Perkins Center, Newcastle, Me.
    Professor Harriet P. Freidenreich, Temple University, Philadelphia, Penn.
    Women's Division, General Board of Global Ministries, United Methodist Church, New York, N.Y.
    Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, Bangkok, Thailand
    Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, Canada, Burnaby, B.C., Canada
    Global Fund for Women, San Francisco, Calif.
    The heirs of Pearl S. Buck
    Hollins University Archives, Roanoke, Va.
    Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Stanford, CA
    Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
    Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Ind.
    International Alliance of Women, Geneva
    International Center for Research on Women, Washington, D.C.
    International Council of Jewish Women, Zur Hadassah, Israel
    International Council of Women/Conseil International des Femmes, Lausanne, Switzerland
    International Federation of University Women, Geneva
    International Human Rights Law Institute, Depaul University, Chicago, Ill.
    International Institute for Social History, Amsterdam
    International Labour Organization, Geneva
    International Labour Review
    International League for Human Rights, New York, N.Y.
    International Organization for Migration, Geneva
    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London
    International Trade Union Council, Brussels
    International Women's Rights Action Watch Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    International Women's Rights Action Watch, Minneapolis, Minn.
    International Women's Tribune Centre, New York, N.Y.
    International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Copenhagen
    Devaki Jain, New Delhi, India
    Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md.
    Barbara Johnson
    Josephine Butler Society, Canterbury, United Kingdom
    Journal of Home Economics
    Kumarian Press, Sterling, Va.
    Nella Las, Jerusalem
    Lady Deirdre Curteis
    Laura Lederer
    Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network, Santiago, Chile
    Palgrave Macmillan
    Professor Elsa Leo-Rhynie, University of the West Indies
    Leyden Lane, Chatham, MA
    Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
    Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Penn.
    MADRE, New York, N.,Y.
    Marijke Peters, Amsterdam
    Mary McLeod Buthune Council House NHS
    Massachusetts Review, Amherst, Mass.
    Medical Women's International Association, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
    Middle East Institute, Washington, D.C.
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Copenhagen
    The Nation, New York, N.Y.
    National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., New York
    National Council of Jewish Women, New York, N.Y.
    National Council of Women, New York, N.Y.
    National Council of Catholic Women, Arlington, Va.
    National League of Women Voters, Washington, D.C.
    National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh
    National Society for Human Rights, Namibia
    Historic National Woman's Party, Washington, D.C.
    The Network of East-West Women, Gdansk, Poland
    Oberlin College Archives, Oberlin, Ohio
    Office for Women, Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Canberra, Australia
    Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio
    Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio
    Orbis Books, Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers, Maryknoll, N.Y.
    Organization of American States, Washington D.C.
    Pan-Pacific and South East Asia Women's Association, Independent Samoa
    Philippine Commission on Women, Manila
    Professor Judy Polumbaum, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
    Population Council, New York, N.Y.
    Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, N.Y.
    Reformed Church in America, Grand Rapids, Mich.
    Diana E. H. Russell, Berkeley, Calif.
    Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
    Socialist International Women, London
    Solidarity Center, AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C.
    Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
    St. Joan's Alliance, Brussels
    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, Ia.
    Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore, Penn.
    The Christian Century, Chicago, IL
    The Streetfeet Women
    Professor Meredeth Turshen, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.
    UCLA African Studies Center, Los Angeles, Calif.
    United Nations, New York, N.Y.
    United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service, Geneva
    University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill.
    University of Illinois Press, Champaign, Ill.
    Nicole Van de Ven, Sint Pieters-Woluwe, Belgium
    War on Want, London
    Tamiment Library, New York, NY
    The Way, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Thomas G. Weiss, CUNY Graduate Center, New York, N.Y.
    Univ. of Delaware Archives and Records Management
    Univ. of Delaware Press
    WFP Library, World Food Programme, Rome
    Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, N.Y.
    Women on Waves, Amsterdam
    Woman's Board of Missions, Cleveland, OH
    Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Evanston, Ill.
    Women's Board of Foreign Missions, Grand Rapids, MI
    Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Geneva
    Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Minnesota Metro Branch
    Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, U.S. Section
    Women's International Zionist Organization, Tel Aviv, Israel
    World Council of Churches, Geneva
    World Health Organization, Geneva
    World YWCA, Geneva
    Annie Wright, Amsterdam
    Zed Books, London

With a combination of funding from Alexander Street Press and SUNY Binghamton, we assembled a talented staff of graduate students—Denise Ireton, Jessie Frazier, Carol Linskey, Jennifer Tomas, and Kelly Marino—all of whom are writing dissertations on topics related to women's social movements. They populated the fields of the Zotero database, generated Excel spreadsheets, selected and acquired documents to be considered for inclusion, improved the database's indexing, and supervised the work flow of undergraduate students who scanned documents. (Click here for a full list of graduate and undergraduate students who helped create the archive.)

Throughout our work we benefited greatly from the recommendations of members of our scholarly Advisory Board. By August 2010 the board had grown to more than 130 members, drawn from 30 countries. That month we met with board members at a conference of the International Federation for Research in Women's History at the Aletta Institute in Amsterdam. In October 2010 we posted a penultimate version of the archive online in the form of about fifty bibliographies of items arranged by organizations, events and global regions. Reviews by Advisory Board members of the bibliographies helped us fill in gaps and eliminate redundancies as we selected final items for the archive. (Click here for Advisory Board members.)

We published the first release of the archive in January 2011 and with the release of March 2013 we have published virtually all of the items intended for inclusion. We anticipate a final release in September 2013 that will enhance the indexing and functionality of the archive and database as well as post the few remaining items slated for the site.

2. How to Cite Sources from WASI International

Because WASI is accessible through the servers of subscribing libraries, the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) will vary, depending on the library, and the URL citation will also vary depending on the library.

We therefore recommend that users include the following elements in their citations:

  • author
  • title of document (for e.g. a speech or a newspaper article)
  • author and title of original source (for e.g., a newspaper or a book).
  • original place of publication, publisher, and date of publication
  • in Kathryn Kish Sklar and Thomas Dublin, eds., Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present
  • accessed through [name of subscribing library]
  • at [URL of home page of subscribing library]
  • accessed [give date].

We added a final release in September 2014 and expect in March 2014 to enhance the indexing and functionality of the archive and database as well as post a few remaining items on the site.

3. WASM International Advisory Board

Advisory Board members come from 30 countries.

Alexandrova, Nadelja University of Sofia, Bulgaria Bulgaria
Allen, Ann Taylor University of Louisville USA
Allen, Margaret University of Adelaide Australia
Antler, Joyce Brandeis University USA
Bader-Zaar, Brigitta University of Vienna Austria
Badran, Margot Northwestern University USA
Bandhauer-Schoeffmann, Irene University of Vienna Austria
Barnes, Sherri UC, Santa Barbara USA
Berger,Iris SUNY Albany USA
Bloch, Avital University of Colima Mexico
Blom, Ida University of Bergen Norway
Bonfiglioli, Chiara Utrecht University Netherlands
Boris, Eileen UC, Santa Barbara USA
Bosch, Mineke Groningen University Netherlands
Boxer, Marilyn J. San Francisco State University USA
Brookes, Barbara University of Otago New Zealand
Butterfield, Jo University of Iowa USA
Caine, Barbara Monash University Australia
Camiscioli, Elisa SUNY, Binghamton USA
Campbell, Lara Simon Fraser University Canada
Carlier, Julie Ghent University Belgium
Chung, Hyun-Back Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul South Korea
Cîrstocea, Ioana CNRS, National Center for Scientific Research, Strasbourg France
Clowes, Lindsay University of Western Cape South Africa
Cobble, Dorothy Sue Rutgers University USA
Cott, Nancy Harvard University USA
Cova, Anne University of Lisbon Portugal
Cowling, Camillia Cândido Mendes University, Rio de Janeiro Brazil
Dalakoura, Katerina University of Crete Greece
Daskalova, Krassimira University of Sofia Bulgaria
de Haan, Francisca Central European University, Budapest Hungary
Dojcinovic, Biljana University of Belgrade Serbia
Doress-Worters, Paula Brandeis University USA
DuBois, Ellen UCLA USA
Duncan, Jennifer S. Bridgewater College USA
Eichner, Carolyn University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee USA
Elgan, Elisabeth Sodertorn University College Sweden
Enloe, Cynthia Clark University USA
Falierou, Anastassia School for Advanced Studies, Paris France
Faulkner, Carol Syracuse University USA
Florin, Christina Stockholm University Sweden
Fonow, Mary Arizona State University USA
Formaglio, Cécile University of Angers France
Fournaraki, Eleni University of Crete Greece
Fraser, Arvonne Minneapolis, Minn. USA
Frost, Jennifer Auckland University New Zealand
Garner, Karen Empire State College USA
Gaucher, Julie University of Lyons France
Gilmore, Stephanie Dickinson College USA
Gold, Carol Unversity of Alaska USA
Goodman, Joyce University of Winchester UK
Gouda, Frances Amsterdam University Netherlands
Grimshaw, Patricia University of Melbourne Australia
Gwinn, Kristen Independent Scholar USA
Haggis, Jane Flinders University Australia
Henold, Mary University of Roanoke USA
Hervé, Florence Independent Researcher, Düsseldorf Germany
Hunter, Jane Lewis and Clark University USA
Iacovetta, Franca University of Toronto Canada
Ishii, Noriko Otsuma Women's University Japan
Janke, Linda Community College USA
Karakaya-Stump, Ayfer Cornell University & Harvard University USA
Kohiyama, Rui Tokyo Women's Christian University Japan
Kolly, Berengere University of Paris France
Kolmerten, Carol Hood College USA
Kuhlman, Erika Idaho State University USA
Lake, Marilyn LaTrobe University Australia
Laughlin, Kathleen Metropolitan State University USA
Laut, Julie University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign USA
Leslie, Grace Yale University USA
Limoncelli, Stephanie Loyola Marymount University USA
López, Carolina Rodríguez Complutense University of Madrid Spain
Maffi, Irene University of Lausanne Switzerland
Malleier, Elisabeth University of Vienna Austria
McAlister, Melanie George Washington University USA
McCune, Mary SUNY, Oswego USA
McFadden, Margaret Appalachian State University USA
Mevis, Annette Aletta Institute, Amsterdam Netherlands
Midgley, Clare Sheffield Hallam University UK
Mishra, Yuthika Vivekananda College, Delhi India
Moses, Claire University of Maryland USA
Natchkova, Nora University of Lausanne Switzerland
Navarro, Marysa Dartmouth College USA
Nazarska, Georgeta State University of Library Studies, Sofia Bulgaria
Naznin, Mir Zahida Jahangirnagar University Bangladesh
Neunsinger, Silke Labour Movement Archives and Library, Stockholm Sweden
Nijhawan, Shobna York University, Toronto Canada
Novikova, Natalia Yaroslavl State Pedagogical University Russia
Oertzen, Christine von Max Planck Institute, Berlin Germany
Offen, Karen Stanford University USA
Olcott, Jocelyn H. Duke University USA
Paisley, Fiona Griffith University, Brisbane Australia
Partington, John S. Freelance historian UK
Patterson, Tiffany Vanderbilt University USA
Perry, Elisabeth St. Louis University USA
Petit, Jeanne Hope College USA
Possing, Birgitte Danish National Archives Denmark
Prieto, Laura R. Simmons College, Boston USA
Purvis, June University of Portsmouth UK
Pushkareva, Natalia Russian Academy of Sciences Russia
Quataert, Jean SUNY, Binghamton USA
Rapp, Anne DePaul University USA
Redmon, Sherrill Sophia Smith Collection USA
Reeves-Ellington, Barbara Siena College USA
Renda, Mary Mount Holyoke College USA
Ribberink, Anneke Free University, Amsterdam Netherlands
Roces, Mina University of New South Wales, Sydney Australia
Rogers, Rebecca Paris Decartes University France
Rosen, Ruth UC, Berkeley USA
Rosenberg, Emily UC, Irvine USA
Roth, Benita SUNY, Binghamton USA
Rupp, Leila UC, Santa Barbara USA
Ruthchild, Rochelle Goldberg Harvard University USA
Sangster, Joan Trent University Canada
Sarkar, Tanika Jawaharlal Nejru University India
Schuler, Anja University of Hedelberg Germany
Schwalm, Leslie A. University of Iowa USA
Shemo, Connie SUNY, Plattsburgh USA
Sluga, Glenda University of Sydney Australia
Spruill, Marjorie University of South Carolina USA
Swain, Shurlee Australian Catholic University Australia
Takahashi, Yuko Tsuda University Japan
Threlkeld, Megan Denison University, Granville USA
Torres San Martin, Patricia University of Guadalajara Mexico
van der Spuy, Patricia Castleton State College, Vermont USA
van, Dijk, Suzan Huygens Instituut KNAW, the Hague Netherlands
Vezzosi, Elisabeth University of Trieste Italy
Waaldijk, Berteke Utrecht University Netherlands
Wamsley, Sue Kent State University USA
Wernitznig, Dagmar University of Oxford UK
Wheeler, Leigh Ann SUNY, Binghamton USA
Wieringa, Saskia Amsterdam University Netherlands
Wikander, Ulla Stockhold University Sweden
Wils, Kaat Catholic University Leuven Belgium
Wilson, Ann Marie Harvard University USA
Woollacott, Angela Australian National University Australia
Yamaguchi, Kiyoko Chinese University of Hong Kong China
Yasutake, Rumi Konan University Japan
Zimmermann, Susan Central European University, Budapest Hungary
Zinsser, Judith P. Miami University, Ohio USA

4. Scholarly Reviews of the Database

For a review of Women and Social Movements International in History Workshop Online, click here. Our second review came in the Journal of American History. Click here

5. Project Staff

Kathryn Kish Sklar, co-editor of the web site, is Distinguished Professor of History Emerita and Co-Director of the Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender at the State University of New York at Binghamton. In 2005-2006 she was the Harmsworth Professor of American History at the University of Oxford. She is the author of Florence Kelley and the Nation's Work: The Rise of Women's Political Culture, 1830-1900 (1995), and other books and articles on women and social movements. Her first book, Catharine Beecher: A Study in American Domesticity (1973), analyzed how women reshaped gender identities and gender relationships in the antebellum era. Both her books on Catharine Beecher and Florence Kelley were awarded the Berkshire Conference Prize. She is currently completing a study of women and social movements in the Progressive era, 1900-1930.

Thomas Dublin is co-editor of the web site. He serves as Bartle Distinguished Professor of History and Co-Director of the Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender at the State University of New York at Binghamton. He is the author or editor of eight books including Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826-1860 (1979), winner of the Bancroft Prize and the Merle Curti Award. His latest book, The Face of Decline: The Pennsylvania Anthracite Region in the Twentieth Century, co-authored with Walter Licht, received the 2006 Merle Curti Award for Social History and the Philip S. Klein Prize.

Denise Ireton served as the Managing Editor of the digital archive, "Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present." She is an advanced doctoral student at SUNY Binghamton who is working on her dissertation, "'Responsible to the Peoples of the World': Activist Women, International Organizing, and Peace Efforts, 1920-1945."

Jessie Frazier served as Project Coordinator on the digital archive, "Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present." She completed her Ph.D. at SUNY Binghamton, with a dissertation entitled, "Making Connections in Viet Nam: Transnational U.S. Women Activists and the Meanings of Race, Gender, and Revolution, 1965-1975.”

Carol Linskey served as Project Coordinator on the digital archive, "Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present." She earned her Ph.D. in U.S. Women's History at SUNY Binghamton in 2013 for a dissertation entitled, "Invisible Politics: Dorothy Kenyon and Women’s Internationalism, 1930s-1950."

Jennifer Tomas served in 2011-2012 as a graduate assistant for the Women and Social Movements web sites. In Spring 2012 she completed her dissertation at SUNY Binghamton entitled, "The Women’s History Movement in the United States: Professional and Political Roots of the Field, 1922 to 1987." She is an Assistant Professor of History at Piedmont Virginia Community College.

Kelly Marino served in 2012-2013 as a graduate assistant for the Women and Social Movements web sites. She is completing a dissertation at SUNY Binghamton entitled, "Creating a Revolution in Educated Opinion: College Students and Woman Suffrage Organizing, 1890-1920."

6. Editorial Policies

Coming in March 2014.

7. About the Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender

Click here for the web site of the Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender at SUNY Binghamton, where the editorial work for this digital archive was carried out.

8. Errata

Please report any errata to the editor at the address at the bottom of this document. There are no known errata at this time.

9. Technical Support

You can contact us by:

When reporting a problem please include your customer name, e-mail address, phone number, domain name or IP address and that of your web proxy server if used.

10. Subscription and Free Trial Information

Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present is available for one-time purchase of perpetual access or as an annual subscription. Please contact us at sales@alexanderstreet.com if you wish to begin a subscription or to request a free 30-day trial.

11. Copyright

All materials in Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present are protected under U.S. and International Copyright Law. Fair use under the law permits reproduction of single copies for personal research and private use. Further transmission, reproduction, or presentation of protected items requires the written permission of the copyright owners.

These digitized collections are accessible for education and research. The editors have identified and contacted copyright holders and have secured permissions to reprint items in the archive from more than two hundred publishers, archives, libraries, organizations, and individuals. On rare occasions we were not able to identify and contact appropriate persons and we are eager to hear from those rights owners. Upon request, we'll remove material from public view while we address a rights issue.

12. Archiving

Texts produced for Women and Social Movements, International—1840 to Present are considered research materials and receive the same level of stewardship as books, paper documents, and photographs. Copies of the database are given to all purchasing institutions, thereby ensuring that the materials are available to subsequent generations.